Pipette(pipet)

A wealth of information of pipetting can be obtained from Artel ( https://www.artel-usa.com/ )

First, unknown to me, there has been a serious issue with the term pipette.  The question is, is it pipette or pipet   Fortunately this issue has been addressed and while the result in not binding, it would appear that the preferred term is pipette (1).  A pipette is defined as “A slender tube of small calibre used for obtaining a known small volume of a liquid, esp. in laboratory work, and often incorporating a swollen central reservoir; pipette is also a verb defined as “To draw (off) by means of a pipette; to transfer (into) by means of a pipette (2).  Regardless of the volume delivered, the major quality attribute for pipetting, whether 10 mL or 10 μL is accuracy (3-9).    There is a need for consistent periodic calibration of pipets and training of operators (10,11).  Specific operator technique is also important (12,13).  There has been a series of studies on the effect of laboratory conditions. (ambient temperature, barometric pressure) which can be significant sources of error (14).  While I recognize that instrumentation and technology have markedly improved over the past 20 years, there was an assay issue that took me from Los Angeles to Switzerland to solve an assay problem involving a classic 96-well microplate.   There was a major discrepancy in potency of an expensive biologic between laboratories.  The problem was solved when was determined that the angle of the pipet tip to wall of the microplate well was critical for adequate mixing.  Pipette tips from mircopipettes are used for solid-phase extraction in sample preparation (15-19).  While accuracy is important, contamination during transfer can be a problem with clinical samples (20).  The term pipette is also used to describe the patch-clamp pipette which is used in electrophysiology (21-23). Instrumentation continues to advance (24).
References
1.  Gold, M., Pipette vs. pipet-which one is correct?, https://www.artel-usa.com/pipette-vs-pipet/
2.  Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom, 2018.
3.   Greendyke, R.M., Wormer, J.L., and Banzhaf, J.C., Quality assurance in the blood bank.  Studies of technologist performance, Am.J.Clin.Pathol. 71, 287-290, 1979.
4. Pecci, J., Ryan, C., and Kahn, T., Source of errors on using a positive-displacement pipette in hepatitis B testing, Clin.Chem. 25, 335-336, 1979.
5.  Hedges, A.J., Estmating the precision of serial dilutions and viable bacterial counts, Int.J.Food Microbiol. 76, 207-214, 2002.
6 Bertermann, R., Pipet quality control: A microliter of prevention, Amer.Biotechnol.Lab. June, 18-24, 2004.
7.  Curtis, R., Minimizing liquid delivery risk: Pipets as sources of errors, Amer.Lab. March, 8-9, 2007.
8.  Rakhankulova, M., Stavrou, S.W., Yuen, A.P., et al., Micropipette tips—the unsung heroes of mass spectrometry, Rapid Commun.Mass Spectrom. 22, 2349-2354, 2008.
9. Ghasemzadeh, N., Wilhemsen, T.W., Nyberg, F., and Hjerten, S., Precautions to improve the accuracy of quantitative determinations of biomarkers in clinical diagnostics, Electrophoresis 31, 2722-2729, 2010.
10.  Curtis, R.H. and Rodriguez, G., Pipet performance verification: An important part of method validation, Amer.Lab., February, 12-17, 2004.
11. Carle, A.B., Rodriguez, G.W., and Curtis, R.H., Transferability of pipet  Calibrations and proficiency of operators: Prerequisites for method validation and method tansfers, Amer.Biotechnol.Lab.  September, 10-13, 2009.
12.  Vaccaco, W., Minimizing liquid delivery: Operators as sources of error, Amer.Lab. September, 16-18, 2007.
13.  Carle, A.B., Rodriguez, G.W., and Curtis, R.H., Transferability of pipet. Calibrations and proficiency of operators: Prerequisites for method validation and method tansfers, Amer.Biotechnol.Lab.  September, 10-13, 2009.
14.  https://www.aweimagazine.com/article/extreme-pipetting-313
15.  Wang, H.. So, P.K., Ng, T.T., and Yao, Z.P., Rapid analysis of raw solution samples by C18 pipette-tip electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, Anal.Chim.Acta 844, 1-7, 2014.
16. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Y.G., Chen, W.S., et al., Three-dimensional ionic liquid-ferrite functionalized graphene oxide for pipette-tip solid phase extracton of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in human blood sample, J.Chromatog A 1552, 1-9, 2018.
17. Fresco-Cala, B. and  Cárdenas, S., Potential of nanoparticle-based hybrid monoliths as sorbents in microextraction techniques, Anal.Chim.Acta 1031, 15-27, 2018.
18.  Simões, N.S., de Oliveira, H.L., da Silva, R.C.S., Hollow mesoporous structured molecularly imprinted polymer as adsorbent in pipette-tip solid-phase extraction for the determination of antiretrovirals from plasma of HIV-infected patients, Electrophoresis, in press (doi:10.1002/elps201800165), 2018.
19.  Mastrianni, K.R., Kemnitzer, and W.E., Miller, K.W.P., A novel, automated dispersive pipette extraction technology greatly simplifies catcholamine sample preparation for downstream LC-MS/MS analysis, SLAS Technol., in press (doi:10/1177/24726303187992659), 2018.
20.  Hopkins, H. Oyibo, W., Luchavez, J., et al., Blood transfer devices for malaria rapid diagnostic tests: evaluation of accuracy, safety and ease of use, Malar.J. 10:30, 2011.
21.  Stuart, G., and Spruston, N., Probing dendritic function with patch pipettes, Curr.Opin.Neurobiol. 5, 389-394, 1995.
22. Danker, T., Braun, F., Silbernagl, N., and Guenther, E., Catch and patch: A pipette-based approach for automating patch clamp that enable cell selection and fast compound application, Assay Drug Dev.Technol. 14, 144-155, 2016.
23. Stockslager, M.A., Capocasale, C.M., Holst, G.L., et al., Optical method for automated measurement of glass micropipette tip geometry, Precis.Eng. 46, 88-95, 2016).
24. Beroz, J. and Hart, A.J., Universal handheld micropipette, Rev.Sci.Instrum. 87:115112,. 2016
©Roger L Lundblad September 23, 2018 Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA